+2 rule for lipoprotein sorting

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Whether E. coli lipoproteins are located in the inner or outer membrane is determined almost entirely by the amino acid residue present at position +2.[1] Lipoproteins with an aspartate at +2 are retained in the inner membrane, although the residue at position 3 can perturb this. The LolCDE, LolA, and LolB proteins have critical roles in lipoprotein sorting.[2] [3] [4]


  1. Yamaguchi, K et al. (1988) A single amino acid determinant of the membrane localization of lipoproteins in E. coli. Cell 53 423-32 PubMed
  2. Matsuyama, S et al. (1995) A novel periplasmic carrier protein involved in the sorting and transport of Escherichia coli lipoproteins destined for the outer membrane. EMBO J. 14 3365-72 PubMed
  3. Matsuyama, Si et al. (1997) A novel outer membrane lipoprotein, LolB (HemM), involved in the LolA (p20)-dependent localization of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 16 6947-55 PubMed
  4. Yakushi, T et al. (2000) A new ABC transporter mediating the detachment of lipid-modified proteins from membranes. Nat. Cell Biol. 2 212-8 PubMed

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